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Climate of Mongolia

Mongolia climate is sharp continental, decided by the harsh cold of Siberia and isolation from the world waters. This page tells you more about climate of Mongolia or weather of Mongolia and temperature in Mongolian tourism season.Mongolian Climate is one of extremes - hot summers and freezing cold winters. Known as the 'Land of Blue Skies', it has over 260 sunny days each year. The winter is long and cold with temperatures often well below -30 Centigrade. Despite these temperatures, the blue winter sky makes it often feel warmer. There is very little snowfall but it and ice can remain for several weeks at a time. 

The rainy season is from July to September, but the showers are often brief. Mongolian summer is the most pleasant time to travel in Mongolia, as sometimes temperatures can reach +40 Centigrade, the air is dry and pleasant to travel around. The Gobi usually has the hottest temperatures. Summer evenings can be cool because of Mongolia's high altitude. The spring is a time of strong winds, especially difficult in the sandy areas of the Gobi.

Temperature in Mongolia:   

Generally, in the winter time, the temperature is from – 15’C to – 30’C or (- 5’F to – 22’F) and in the summer times, the average temperature is from +10’C to +26.7’C or (50’F to 80’F). The average temperature in the Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul and Khentii mountain region is less than – 4’C, in the basin of biggest rivers – 6’C to – 8’C, in the steppe zone, it is less than + 2’C and in the Gobi desert zone, it is more than +6’C. 

January, the coldest month of the year in Mongolia – the air temperature reaches – 30’C to – 34’C in the Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul and Khentii mountain region, - 20’C to 25’C in the steppe zone, - 15’C in the Gobi desert and it is from – 15’C to 12’C in the southern Gobi desert region.  

The hottest month of the year in Mongolia is July, the average temperature in the Altai, Khangai, Khuvsgul and Khentii mountain region is +15’C, it is from +15’C to +20’C in the great lake depression, Altai, Khangai, Huvsgul, Khentii mountain range and basin of Orkhon, Selenge and Khalkha rivers and it is +20’C to 25’C in the southern part of Dornod steppe and it is more than +25’C in Dornogobi region. In the summer time, the temperature goes down when land level goes up +0.5 – 0.6’C for each 100 meter than sea level. 

Mongolian Weather Right Now by FOBOS, Russia

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Mongolia Weather Averages

Average Min
Temperatures in Mongolia (°C)
Average Max Temperature
in Mongolia (°C)
Mongolia Average Temperature (°C) Average Precipitation/ Rainfall (mm) Wet Days (>0.1 mm) Average Sunlight Hours/ Day Relative Humidity (%) Average Wind Speed in Mongolia (Beaufort) Average Number of Days with Frost
Jan -32 -19 -26 1 1 - 73 - -
Feb -29 -13 -21 1 1 - 66 - -
Mar -22 -4 -13 2 2 - 61.0 - -
Apr -8 7 -1 5 2 - 42 - -
May -2 13 6 10 4 - 40 - -
Jun 7 21 14 28 5 - 44 - -
Jul 11 22 16 76 10 - 54 - -
Aug 8 21 14 51 8 - 49 - -
Sep 2 14 8 23 3 - 43 - -
Oct -8 6 -1 5 2 - 48 - -
Nov -20 -6 -13 5 2 - 57 - -
Dec -28 -16 -22 2 1 - 75 - -

The annual precipitation in Mongolia: 

Generally, the sum of annual prescription is not much in Mongolia. The average rainfall is 300 – 400 mm in the Khangai, Khentii and Khuvsgul mountainous area, is 250 – 300 mm in the Mongol Altai mountainous region and forest, steppe zone, 150 – 250 mm in steppe zone and 50 – 100 mm in the Gobi desert zone. The ~ 85% of total precipitation is from April to Sep and its’ 50 – 60% is in Jul and August. The average rainy days in mountainous region of Mongolia is 60 – 70 days. For example, when rainy days are 40 – 60 in Khangai, Khentii mountain region, it is 30 days are rainy in the Dornod great steppe and the Gobi desert. 

The most percentage of annual precipitation is rain. During the whole winter, there is 10 mm snow in the Gobi desert and 20 – 30 mm snow in the mountainous region and Basin of Uvs Lake and 10 – 20 mm snow in rest of territory. The number of days which have snow cover is more than 150 days in Mongol Altai, Khangai, Khentii and Khuvsgul mountain region, 100 – 150 days in forest, steppe zone, 50 – 110 days in Dornod great steppe and other region and less than 50 days in the Gobi desert zone. 

The Sun Ray: 

There are 230 – 260 days are sunny in Mongolia and it is 2600 – 3330 hour of a year. 


it is much windy in the steppe and Gobi desert region. The average wind speed is 4 – 6 m/s in these territories, 1 – 2 m/s in the Khentii mountain range and 2 – 3 m/s in rest of region.

Seasons of Mongolia 

Spring comes after a severe winter, days become longer, and nights shorter. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from hibernation. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the warm spring weather. In Mongolia "Khansh neekh" means some animals, which hibernated, awoke from their sleep. Spring is the prosperous season of the year when everybody is calm and relaxed; grass turns green, anemones grow up and nature is covered with its green dress. Beginning in March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. For people and livestock, it is also a harsh season of the driest and the most windy days although it gets warm in spring, livestock breed and gain their weight; and grass becomes green.

Summer is the warmest season in Mongolia. Generally, precipitation is higher in summer than any time of the year. Rivers and streams are at their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays of happy people. In Mongolia, summer lasts about 110 days from the end of May until September. July is the warmest month of summer and it is 59° F (15° С) and 68° F (20° С) in mountainous areas of Khangai region, 68° F (20° С) and 77° F (25° С) in the steppes and the highest temperature is between 90° F (32° С) and 95° F (35° С) in Khangai and 104° F (40° С) and 106° F (41° С) in Gobi. Sometimes it reaches 122° F (50° С) in Gobi.
Autumn in Mongolia is the season of transition from the hot and wet summer to the cold and dry winter. There is less rainfall in autumn. Gradually it gets cooler and vegetables and grains are harvested at this time. Pasture and forests become yellow. Flies die and livestock is fat and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops, vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds; preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November. In some years, there are many long and sunny days in autumn.
Winter in Mongolia, winter is the most severe, the coldest and longest season. All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze in winter. It snows throughout the country, but not heavily. After making all the necessary preparations for a long winter, herdsmen stay at their winter camps. Winter starts early in November and lasts about 110 days until March. Sometimes it snows in September and November, but the heavy snow usually occurs at the beginning of November. January is the coldest winter month in Mongolia and the mean temperature is 95°F (-35°С) in Khangai mountain regions, 59° F (-15°С) in Gobi and 68°F (-20°С) and 77°F (-25°С) in the other parts of the country. Howevr, 50° F (-10° С) in Europe means 68° F (-20° С) in Mongolia.

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